Khatu Dham Introduction - Khatu is a village in Danta Ramgarh Tehsil in Sikar District of Rajasthan State, India. It lies in the Jaipur Division and located at a distance of 48 km from District headquarters Sikar.
Khatu village is surrounded by Sikar Tehsil towards North and West, Nagaur District towards South, Reengus town and Sri Madhopur Tehsil towards East. It is located 32 km away from the Tehsil Danta Ramgarh, 18 km from Reengus and 80 km from the State capital of Jaipur.
The nearest airport from Khatu village is Jaipur International Airport which is around 80 km from it and other airports closer to it are Delhi (281 km), Agra (284 km) and Udaipur (366 km).
Nearest railway station to Khatu village is Reengus Junction (18 km), this distance can be covered either by Car/Jeep or by Bus. From the capital Jaipur, Reengus can be reached via trains and currently as per the schedule, seven trains run daily to reach Reengus.
From Delhi there is only one train “Chetak Express” with the last junction as Udaipur halts at Reengus Junction, whereas there are no direct trains from Kolkata.
NH11 passes through Sikar which connects Jaisalmer and Fatehpur in Rajasthan. Another National Highway close to the village is NH8 (80 km) which connects Delhi to Mumbai is one of the busiest Highways.
Daily bus services from Delhi are operated by DTC, Haryana Roadways and Rajasthan Roadways. Buses are also available from Jaipur to the village.
The topography of Khatu village is quite flat and the highest contour level is 457 m and lowest contour level is 443 m in the study area.
Also, the footprint of water drain found is on the Northern side of the settlement which lies in the low lying area and the flow of this water drain was from East direction towards the West direction.
The region has a hot semi-arid climate, with rains during monsoon months between June and September. The average annual temperature in Sikar is 24.6 °C.
The annual rainfall averages 440 mm. The driest month is April, with 2 mm of rain. Most precipitation falls are recorded in July; with an average of 158 mm. June is the warmest month of the year. The temperature in June averages 33.2 °C.
In January, the average temperature is 14.0 °C which is the lowest average temperature of the year. There is a difference of 156 mm of precipitation between the driest and wettest months.
The average temperature variation in the year is 19.2 °C. There are however occasional cold fronts that lead to temperature near freezing point.
The wind direction in Khatu village flows from the direction of South towards West with an average speed of 10 kmph whereas during winters the wind blows at the speed of 3 kmph.
Natural Features, Flora and Fauna
This area lies in the southern part of the district which is comprised of sandy loam soil and mounds of the Aravalli range. Sandy loam soil is relatively equal in proportions with sand, silt, and clay and has a maximum tendency to absorb water.
It is a great event, preparing soil for growing crops but only for a wide range of vegetables and fruits. Plants grown in this type of soil will require more frequent irrigation and fertilization than soils with a higher concentration of clay and sediment and they are often deficient in specific micro nutrients and may require additional fertilization to support healthy plant growth.
This area is a semi-desert, similar to the appearance of a sea-bed. The most important trees found in the area include Babul, Dhonk, Kumutha, Song, Khair, Kare, Chilla, Hingot, Papri, Salar, Khejra, Siras, Rohira, Sisham, Neem, Phog, Pipal, Thor, Aak etc.
The major types of grasses found are Doob, Bharut, Baru, Lapla, Kaladhamam, Munj and many others. The forest area is of not much importance in terms of forest production.
Only spiky and thorny bushes are found in the margins, also at the foot hills, on sand dunes, ravine lands and sand plains. The major products from these forests include honey, firewood, grass, and bamboo.
Khatu village has a population of 11374 of which 5800 are males while 5574 are females as per Population Census 2011 with the total number of households 1860. Population of children in the age group of 0-6 is 1779 which is 15.64 % of total population of Khatu.
Average Sex Ratio of Khatu village is 961 which is higher than Rajasthan state average of 928. Child Sex Ratio for Khatu as per census is 907, higher than Rajasthan average of 888.
Khatu village has higher literacy rate compared to the average of Rajasthan state. In 2011, literacy rate of Khatu was 73.90 % compared to 66.11 % of Rajasthan.
Male literacy stands at 84.80 % while female literacy rate was 62.69 %. Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 28.10 % while rate of Schedule Tribe (ST) was 3.69 % of total population in the village.
The population of Khatu village in the year of 1971 was 4861 which increased to 5894 in the year of 1981 with a growth rate of 21.25 % and 7440 in the year 1991 with the growth rate of 26.23 %.
In the decade of 1991-2001, the growth rate was recorded 13.84%, whereas for the decade 2001 -2011 the population increased to 11374 with the growth rate of 34.28%.
The population of the village is consistently increasing throughout the decades with an average growth rate of 23.90%. Also, pilgrims in a huge number visit Khatu village daily and annually as well during festivals, which increases the flow of crowds there and hence demands for better infrastructure.
(a) Occupational Structure
In Khatu village, total working population in Khatu village was 3645, out of which 76.81% were main workers whereas, 23.18% were marginal workers.
Out of main workers, 26% were cultivators, 1% were agricultural labourers, 4% were household industrial workers and 69%, other workers whereas marginal workers were 1109, out of which 46% were cultivators, 9% were agricultural labourers, 1% were household industrial workers and 43%, other workers.
If the whole population of the village is considered, then out of 11374, only 24.61% are main workers and 7.42% are marginal workers. The female work force of the village is 25.92% in which 12.67% are main workers and 69.82% are marginal workers.
(b) Work Force Participation Rate (WFPR)
Work Force Participation Rate of Khatu village is 32.04% is comparatively less when compared to the average of India which is 39.1% and is low when compared to the average of Rajasthan which is 43.60%.
(c) Population Density
As per URDPFI guidelines, the gross density for a small town should be 75-125 persons per hectare (pph) for plain areas.
The Gross density of the developed areas in Khatu village is 53 persons per acre which is higher when compared to the standard developed area average density for plain areas. Also, the Net density of the village is 130 persons per acre.
A radial pattern is the form in which the dwellings are spread out in several directions from a central point, which is either around a significant place or where many routes join together. In Khatu, settlement has a radial pattern with a single core area defined by the road pattern.
The major road network goes in five different directions, towards Reengus, Pachar, Danta Ramgarh, Palsana and Manda. Most structures are single storied with only a few double storied structures. The area around the temple is densely inhabited. Near the temple, most of the buildings are residential with sweet shops lining the streets.
There is a small haveli to the north of the temple. There are many dharamshalas and hotels in the village for the pilgrims. The dharamshalas close to the temple are small in size, while there are bigger dharamshalas on the outskirts of the village along the roads going in the outward direction.
If the growth pattern of the village is observed, it can be seen that in 1968 the growth is seen going in the outward direction from single core point on the road going towards Pachar, in 2003 the growth is on the road going towards Palsana and Manda while in 2015, the growth can be seen occurring on the roads going in all the five directions.
Khatu village has a total area of 34.81sq. km. Despite being a pilgrimage site, a major portion of land use type is under residential land use while public – semi-public land use is also predominant and the village has many dharamshalas for accommodation purpose.
Most of the building structures are two storied in the village, whereas structures with upto five storeys are also there and also majority of the structures are pucca in nature.
The existing residential land use area in Khatu village is 87.24 acres which is 40% of the total developed area and the land use share is 2.81% of the total area of the village. When the share of the residential land used out of the developed area is compared to the URDPFI guideline which is 35- 40%, it can be observed that the share is almost near to the standard.
The core part of the village, i.e. the temple and its surroundings are the highly dense areas; from the temple towards east till 250 m, towards south till 150 m, towards west till 250 m and towards north till 300m, the area remains dense, whereas while moving away from that area the density starts decreasing and it becomes sparse.
The total number of households in the village is 1860 and the net density of the village is 130.75 persons per acre.
The existing commercial land use area in Khatu village is 10.18 acres which is 5% of the total developed area and the land use share is 0.32% of the total area of the village.
When the share of the commercial land used out of the developed area is compared to the URDPFI guidelines which is 5-7%; it can be observed that the share is up to the standard.
The existing governmental land used area in Khatu village is 1.61 acres which is 1% of the total developed area and the land use share is 0.05% of the total area of the village.
The existing recreational land used area in Khatu village is 5.43 acres which is 3% of the total developed area and the land use share is 0.17% of the total area of the village.
When the share of the recreational land used out of the developed area is compared to the URDPFI guidelines which is 10-12%, it can be observed that the share is too less for the recreational land use as the presence of these areas carry economic value, health & environment benefits and social importance as well. Khatu also has a huge stadium named as Baghchand stadium under this land use.
(e) Public and Semi- Public
The existing public and semi-public land use area in Khatu village is 67.15 acres which is 31% of the total developed area and the land use share is 2.16% of the total area of the village.
When the share of the Public and Semi-Public land used out of the developed area is compared to the URDPFI guidelines which is 10-12% including governmental land also, it can be observed that the share is very high for the public and semi-public land use which is also due to the presence of dharmashalas.
(I) Secondary School/ Senior School
There is a small portion of institutional land present in which 11 schools are located in the village.
(II) Health Care
There is only one hospital in Khatu village named as Samudayak Swastha Kendra, with a number of 50 beds in it, with 8 sub-centres including 1 bed in each of them.
There is a provision to set up 10 temporary camps during the annual mela/ festivals along with Doctors with a time slot provided to them for their duties to be performed at different allotted places in the village for 24 hours, namely, Mandir Committee, Kabutar Chowk, Kasaudiya Bawadi, Shyam Mahotsav, Entrance and exit gates of Charad ground, Torad gate, Lamiya Tiraha, Point Manda mod, Point Sargoth, Point Khatu mod Reengus, Lapuya, Takhni, Santoshpura and Chaunu Purotihan. During that time, extra facilities are also provided in the hospitals.
(III) Religious/ Historical
Among the religious and historical places, Khatu Shyam Ji Temple, Shyam Kund, Garhwalon ka Makaan and Sethon ki Haveli are the built heritage sites, which contribute to the popularity of Khatu but are not preserved and noted to be in a bad condition.
(IV) Other Community Facilities
A major part of this land use category includes Dharamshalas, 142 in total, 3 guest houses and 13 hotels.
(V) Public Utilities
(a) Water Supply
Water supply is not adequate and the piped network does not cover a large section of the population. During peak periods of occasion/mela tends to face acute problems of water supply. Total number of water supply connections is 1200.
The areas far away and in the southern part of the main settlement do not have piped water supply connection and get water through hand pumps. The source of water of the village is the ground water which is extracted through tube wells and hand pumps and is being used.
At present, water is being supplied to the village twice daily for 1 hour in the morning and evening as well, while during festival time the supply is being done thrice a day including noon time.
There are 3 overhead tanks (OHT) for distribution of water, 2 OHTs carry a capacity of 100 KL and 1 OHT carries a capacity of 300 KL and 1 CWR with a capacity of 600 KL.
There are 17 tube wells, 13 hand pumps and 13 single water points in the village. Water generated in the village is 8 lakh litres a day, thus making it up to 70lpcd while during festivals, it increases to 24 lakh litres.
Power cuts are not very common in Khatu village and during occasions and mela, power consumption increases. The provision of increased power supply becomes a challenge.
Available Grid Sub-Stations (GSS): 12 MW, for Khatu village 5.5 MW is provided and rest for surrounding rural areas. But during festivals around 8 MW is supplied only to Khatu Shyam Ji. There are 1860 HH electrified and have well-metered connections
There is insufficient water drainage system within the temple town. Due to inadequate flow in the system, there is choking and blockage growth, due to silt deposits in the drains and the waste remains exposed which in turn leads to foul smell and breeding of mosquitoes. Rain water flows on the streets as surface run-off. At times it becomes stagnant in pools and open lands, causing health hazards.
(d) Sewerage & Sanitation
There is no sewerage network available and it doesn’t have a STP as well in the village. Although the places near temple area are clean due to people's spiritual conscience, rest remains a potential towards unhygienic conditions and sanitation issues. Around 80-85% families have individual toilets in the village.
4 community toilets are located inside the parking area, at Lamiya Tiraha, at Mela Maidan and at Mandha Chauraha, near Goyal Dharmashala.
According to World Health Organization’s recommendation, there should be one community toilet for every 100 people, but against this recommendation, the existing number of community toilets is comparatively low which is 4 and most of them are in a bad shape due to lack of maintenance.
Also, Khatu Shyam Ji temple attracts people in lakhs but as per the observation, the existing toilets in the surroundings are also in a poor condition.
(e) Solid Waste Management
The solid waste generated in the temple town mainly consists of domestic waste, wastes from commercial areas, vegetable fruit market, bio-medical waste, wastes from hotels and restaurants and other solid wastes.
Apart from these, waste is also generated from drains in the form of wet silts, which are exposed alongside the road and creates unhygienic conditions, foul smell and breeding of mosquitoes.
20 cm of waste is generated every day. During Mela wastes generated per day is 40-50 cm approx. There is no door-to-door collection facility. Vehicles used to collect solid waste are two Tractor Trolleys of capacity 2 cum.
15 sanitary staff members every day (regular days) and 150 sanitary staff members daily during fairs are allocated for waste collection. Plastic drums are used as dustbins for collection of wastes which are 11 in number and placed in the major market area.
Duration of cleaning and collection procedure is 8 hours/day. Solid waste is dumped in the village itself on a vacant land situated next to the road going towards the direction of Danta Ramgarh. As per CPHEEO norms, 0.21 kg/capita/day should be generated in a town of population between 10000- 100000.
But in Khatu village of population 11374, the waste generated is 1.76kg/capita/day, which is very high than the mentioned standard, due to the higher number of tourists/ pilgrims who visit the village and temple every day.
Khatu village is well-connected with roads internally as well as with major roads connecting NHs and SHs. The town is 0.921 km east to west and 0.97 km north to south.
The existing road network which skirts the Khatu village area is NH 11 of width 60 m which passes through Sikar district and connects to MDR 46 (Major District Road) of width 30 m which further goes into Khatu village towards west and also connects the village to Reengus town towards east, for the functional and efficient connectivity framework for both inter- and intra circulation.
Also, the MDR 46 connects to MDR 100 of width 30 m and provides the Khatu village, an access to reach Palsana via Aloda and road towards north of the village connects Manda via Hanumanpura.
A dominant road based internal circulation system of the village has been classified in the hierarchy of Major district roads, local street roads, access streets and kaccharasta which handles the village mobility pattern and the number of tourists who arrive daily and in the festive season as well.
Most of the major roads are Cement Concrete roads which are 4.4 km and bituminous roads are 4.4 km and 13 km of kuccha Rasta.
Hierarchy of Roads:
Major District Roads (MDR) :
There are two MDR near the village, i.e., MDR 46 and MDR 100 of width 30 m and 30 m respectively.
Local Street Roads: These are the major internal roads in the village which are planned to cater to the bulk of the intra-city movement. The width of the roads varies from 4 m -12 m.
Access Streets: These are other streets which provide access to the plots directly. The width of the roads varies from 3 m-6 m.
Kaccha Rasta: These are unpaved roads which go inside the village and connect to the other road network and are of 13 km in length.
Modes of intra city travel available are Taxis, Jeeps, Auto and Bus etc. Pedestrian facilities are generally absent and the few footpaths that exist are in a state of disrepair or encroached by hawkers and other activities.
(a) Parking Facilities
One bus depot is located near the core of the settlement and another is on the radial road going towards Manda. The bus services operate from Jaipur, Haridwar, Delhi, Ajmer, Sawai Madhopur and various other places up to Reengus and there are approximately 200 buses operated on these routes daily, while there are 20 buses operated between Sikar and Khatu and 38 buses operated between Reengus and Danta via Khatu.
150 extra buses are put in operation during festivals on these routes. Seven auto-rickshaws ply within Khatu and 15 ply till the outskirts of the town.
The major parking areas in this town are: Motor Wala Balaji with an area of 4375 square meters, located on Khatu Shyam road; Meena traders with an area of 3, 75,000 square meters, located on Danta Ragadh road near Meena Market and Shree Shyam parking located on Alauda Chauraha.
Whereas, there are still some areas around the Khatu Shyam Ji Temple premises which get congested due to the crowd, unauthorised parking and encroachment done by the shops around and thus creates a problem for the easy mobility and circulation.
(c) Existing Festival Route Movement
During festivals, the inflow of tourists/ pilgrims in the Khatu village increases and as per the present data, a maximum number of around 1000000 tourists/ pilgrims visit the village during Fagotsava mela. To handle such a huge number of visitors, village has its own movement pattern which is being followed.
Entry Route: The entrance for the tourists/ pilgrims is executed from one side, which starts from the MDR 46 to the South direction and follows the road running parallel to the Shyam Kund leading to the temple.
Exit Route: The exit for the tourists/ pilgrims is executed which starts from the Kabootar Chowk towards North, following the road next to the hospital, the road parallel to it and the road next to Hotel Lakhdataar which finally merge to the MDR 46.
Roadways Exit Route : The road going towards Palsana is used as the roadways exit route.
Vehicle Entry Route: The road going towards Manda is used as the entry route for all the vehicles leading to the parking area situated near it.
Pedestrian Route: From NH-11 till the starting point of entry route, the road is used as a pedestrian way.
Emergency Route: Another route starting from the Danta Ramgarh road from the West direction towards the temple is used as the emergency route.
Jaipur- Khatu Vehicle Route: This route starts from the NH-11 which follows the Renwal by pass road and Danta Ramgarh road.
Parking Areas: Two parking area adjacent to the MDR 46 and a roadways bus stand is provided for the parking of vehicles during festivals.
(VII) Vacant /Agriculture land
The agricultural land parcels used for cultivation around the settlement is 2303.83 acres. As soil fertility is an important aspect of the soil-plant relationship, its fertility status is primarily and significantly dependent upon both the macro- and micro-nutrient reserve of the soil.
In Khatu, the sandy loam soil is present which is fertile, due to its characteristics of absorbing water that helps in the optimum productivity of the crops. The major crops produced in the village are wheat, bajra and mustard.
Also in Khatu, there are 1860 households with the total population of 11374 out of which 11%, i.e. 1232 people are engaged in the agricultutral activities and earn their livelihood.
761 people are engaged in these activities as main workers, whereas 471 persons are involved in these activities as marginal workers.
As agriculture is the main source of economy generation of any village, a large share of agricultural land exists in Khatu; considering the involvement of 11% population in this, the agricultural and productive land would not be disturbed.
(VIII) Water Body
The presence of a footprint of a water body of area 588.06acres can be marked which has now dried up and the growth of built-up area in that part is diminishing its existence.
Also, lack of the presence of a water body /pond is a major issue for the settlement for the source of water, which could be helpful for the ground water recharge as well and if the religious view is concerned, there is the absence of a water tank near the temple too.
(a) Dharamshalas/ Accommodation
As per the trust report, an average of 5000 visitors daily, 25000 visitors on Sunday, 100000 visitors on Shukl Paksh, 200000 visitors during Janmotsava and around 1000000 visitors during Fagotsava visit the temple and town.
Thus to accommodate these visitors, there are a variety of hotels, dharamshalas and restaurants available for tourist accommodation as most of the people from various parts of India, as well as abroad, come here not only for pilgrimage but also for religious ceremonies.
A large number of well-maintained Dharamshalas and Vishram Grihas which are fully equipped with boarding and lodging facilities are located at Khatu village. Some of them even have deluxe rooms with attached bathrooms, geysers, air-coolers and air-conditioners.
Following is the list of some of the prominent Dharamshalas, in and around Khatu temple.
Shree Shyam Seva Mandal.
Shree Shyam Mitra Mandal.
Shree Shyam Panchayati Dharamshala.
Shree Shyam Kala Bhavan
Parasramka Guest House
Rewadiwalon ki Dharamshala
Garhwalon ki Dharamshala.
Shree Shyam Prem Mandal.
Besides these, many small and big boarding houses have cropped up in and around Khatu village. There is accommodation available in Reengus too. Yet, due to heavy rush during the Fagotsava Mela, accommodation remains insufficient.
(b) Tourism with respect to the Senior Citizens/ Handicapped People/ People with small children Regardless of one’s physical limitations, disabilities and age, the assurance and accessibility of proper tourist destinations, products and services is one of the most important aspects of tourism and is often called as Accessible Tourism.
In the context of Khatu village, the accessible tourism does not appear to be in proper terms, as the tourist infrastructure does not enable people, i.e., people with disabilities, senior citizens and people with small children as well, with access requirements, including mobility, vision, hearing and cognitive dimensions of access and to function independently through the delivery of the designed tourism services and environment.
Safety & Security
The nearest Police Control Room to Khatu village is Reengus. There is a Mela Guide plan made by authorities to facilitate the pilgrims. As there is heavy footfall of up to 10, 00000 pilgrims and tourists during mela, it requires special mela action plan for Police.
It takes care of parking, barricading, check post, control room etc. Policemen are appointed at regular points to check on pickpocketing, chainsnatching and eve-teasing.
There is a temporary tourist information centre set up during the mela. Police also takes care of security during the Rath Yatra.
There is no consistent signage system for the temple and the Village; Sign boards haphazardly hang on electric poles.
The number of tourists greatly outnumbers the residents on weekends and special occasions. This stresses the local infrastructure and is a management challenge for local authorities.
The road pattern is organic and road widths are narrow, which leads to traffic congestion due to limited carrying capacity.
Bottleneck created near Khatu Shyam Ji Temple due to encroachment on ROW.
No infrastructure is in place for pedestrians or cyclists, despite the fact that many people walk or ride cycle. No footpaths, poor street lighting and poor signage systems cause inconvenience to the pedestrians.
Parking areas are not enough to accommodate large numbers of vehicles during weekends and special occasions
Water supply is only 70 lpcd while the recommended benchmark is 135 lpcd. User charges lead to a recovery of only a fraction of expenses on O&M
Previously there had been a drain of area 588.06 acres in the village, which has now dried up and its existence is getting diminished.
Ground water is depleting regularly, due to lack of water tanks/ponds and which may add to the problem of water scarcity.
No storm water drainage system exists and natural drains are blocked.
80-85% of the households have toilets which should be 100%.
Only 4 community toilets are located in spite of 11374 population and thousands of daily commuters.
Drainage system is uncovered and no waste water treatment plant exists.
There is complete lack of sewerage system.
There is a lack of litter bins at proper distance.
Waste is dumped at open lands. A proper SWM is not in place.
Dumping site is located on Jhamawas road at a distance of 2 km, no treatment facility is available.
Dharamshala: Lack of security equipment and affiliation with Devasthan.
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